Uttam K. Sinha MS, MD, FACS

Cancer, Microbiome, and Deep Learning

GENETIC DIVERSITY

In order to know about cancer and its progression one has to understand general biology and the process of evolution because cancer is present in the biosphere.  About 2 billion years ago there were uni-cellular organisms, which evolved into multicellular organisms. All multicellular organisms have the potential of cancer in them and this is attributed to the presence of carbon chains and the availability of oxygen, nitrogen and hydrogen.  


Evolution did not rid the organisms of cancer because of the presence of stem cells. The embryogenesis genes are akin to cancer genes, and the embryonic stem cells have the potential to produce a variety of different cells.

 

Permanent cells like the brain neurons do not replicate and are less likely to get cancer as compared to bone marrow cells, which have a high degree of stem cells, thus leading to a high turnover and the production of tumor initiating cells that increase the self renewal capacity. Research has been conducted using the OCT4 gene in the cancer stem cell with GFP tags with harvesting of the cells in mice.

 

MICROBIAL DIVERSITY AND MICRO-ENVIRONMENT

Tumors are dependent on the micro environment. In the normal stem cells. The CBP to p300 beta catenine ratio is 1:1.  In adults, the latter increases, causing an imbalance in the environment. In cancer, the unregulated genes are high. 

 

Cancer complexity is predicated on the stem cells, fibroblasts, angiogenesis and the T cell mediation.  The complexity of carcinogenesis makes targeted treatment difficult and complicated. Cancer is in fact a group of diseases with abnormal genes in all cancer types. CBP Catenine antagonists, incidentally, are known to help heal the skin.

 

 

EVOLUTION AND ASTROBIOLOGY

Quantum mechanics affect our lives, as is indicated by magnetism affecting navigation in geese. The presence of cryptochrome in the retinas of other species, uses the presence or absence of blue light to designate destinations in seasonal migrations. 

 

It is imperative to understand that the human body is a component to be studied in conjunction with astrobiology and evolution. Cancer biology is more understood if the disciplines are studied as a whole. The Earth’s magnetic poles have a protective influence on us. Any shifts in our bodies due to electro-magnetic forces leads to an abnormal movement, mutation and disease.

 

Rejuvenation of the body is promoted by exercise, meditation, breathing regulation, diet etc. This modification of life style keeps a health balance in the cancer biology, evolution and astrobiology triad.

 

METAGENOMICS

Metagenomics is the study of the structure and function of nucleotide sequences isolated directly from an environmental sample, especially of a community of  micro-organisms. Human existence depends on:

Human genome and the Metagenome. 

A balance between the two needs to be maintained.

 

The  Metagenome and the Human genome are the genetic memories of events faced by the different species through millennia. The study of ancient oncogenesis had  previously identified different pathogens to be essential in evolution.For instance, H-pylori was known to cause gastric cancers but with pathogen isolation and treatment, the incidence of this type of cancer  has receded.  

 

Cancers related to HPV and EBV are on the rise howerver. It is only recently that a vaccine (Gardasil) has been developed against HPV and its usage has been expanded. A saliva test has been developed for HPV detection and eventual protection.

 

MICROBIOME AND CANCER

A resident microbiome influences metabolism and inflammation.

The host immune response activates, trains and modulates the body’s reaction. Since immunity has been identified as a causative agent, immunotherapy has been known to mitigate the effect of the cancer. A fecal transplant, for instance, has converted cancer responders to non-responders with positive results.

 

ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE IN MEDICAL PRACTICE

Commerce has used artificial intelligence to study and record market trends and individual purchases. This has been used to build a profile of an individual. 

 

Similarly, the vast data found in patients is now being fed to computers, which have both the storage capacity and processing qualities. The machine learning is propagated by supervised learning, unsupervised learning and finally by reinforced learning. 

Deep learning, which sifts through the collected data, codifies and correlates repetitive incidences and creates a pattern with outcomes. The knowledge is of clinical significance, but AI is not ASTUTE nor INTUITIVE. A physician is COGNITIVE and able to make decisions on the basis of data collected.

 

Thus the vast amount of data has to be further sifted to glean SMART DATA, to produce a global culture in treatment and analysis of disease patterns.

 

The data could be the framework for virtual trials.

 

LIFE STYLE MODIFICATION

Cancers like an acidic environment, and a high carb diet and glucose feed the cancer cells.

 

Cancer cells are influenced by obesity, and are averse to oxygen.

Cancer cells are affected by artificial external factors like artificial colors in food.

Stress reduction and meditation lead to a more efficient usage of oxygen in the body, and sleep, producing melatonin, all help in mitigating the effect of cancer cells.

 

Whereas the human species are programmed to have the sympathetic response of fright, fight and flight, it is the parasympathetic response of rest and ingest that helps fight disease, including cancer.

 

Compiled by Parvin D. Syal MD